According to Vanderbilt University Teaching and Learning Center:
“Team-based learning is one version of a flipped classroom, which is supported by a 1998 study by Richard Hake. Hake gathered data on 2084 students in 14 introductory physics courses taught by traditional methods (defined by the instructor as relying primarily on passive student lectures and algorithmic problem exams), allowing him to define an average gain for students in such courses using pre/post-test data. Hake then compared these results to those seen with interactive engagement methods, defined as “heads-on (always) and hands-on (usually) activities which yield immediate feedback through discussion with peers and/or instructors” (Hake p. 65) for 4458 students in 48 courses. He found that students taught with interactive engagement methods exhibited learning gains almost two standard deviations higher than those observed in the traditional courses (0.48 +/- 0.14 vs. 0.23 +/- 0.04).
More specifically, team-based learning has been shown to produce learning gains in a variety of healthcare education classrooms. A selection of those studies are described here.
Levine and colleagues incorporated team-based learning into a psychiatry clerkship curriculum, replacing half of the lectures with TBL activities including readiness assurance tests and application exercises (2004). Following implementation of team-based learning, students performed significantly better on the National Board of Medical Examiners psychiatry subject test. They also scored higher on attitudes about working in teams and reported the team learning activities to be more effective learning strategies.
Koles and colleagues compared medical students’ test performance on questions that assessed concepts learned by TBL methods or by other methods (2010). Students exhibited higher mean scores on questions that assessed knowledge of content learned via TBL than on questions assessing content learned using other methods. Importantly, students within the lowest quartile showed the greatest gains: average improvement of 7.9% for students in the lowest quartile as compared to average improvement of 5.5% for all students.
Zgheib and colleagues investigated the impact of team-based learning for second year medical students in a pharmacology course (2010). They found that team-based learning approaches were more effective than traditional lecture-based pedagogy for improving student learning of difficult concepts but were not more effective for easier concepts.”